World Heritages in France Part 1

Fortifications Vaubans (World Heritage)

The fortifications of Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633–1707), the architect of Louis XIV, are excellent examples of European military architecture. Twelve exemplary facilities were included in the World Heritage List.

Vauban’s fortifications: facts

Official title: Vauban’s fortifications
Cultural monument: 13 defenses of a fortress belt mainly around the northern, western and eastern borders of France; developed by the French fortress builder and marshal in the service of Louis XIV, Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707); World heritage selection from around 160 buildings erected or expanded by Vauban to illustrate the development of the defense system, the different types of fortress and their geographical features; including various types of buildings: newly built fortress cities, citadels, mighty city walls and urban defense towers, mountain and sea fortresses; outstanding structure: the octagonal garrison town of Neuf-Brisach; Scheduled fortresses (including Metz, Strasbourg, Neubreisach, Belfort, Landau in the Palatinate), until the second half of the 19th century.
Continent: Europe
Country: France
Location: Northern, eastern and western borders of France
Appointment: 2008
Meaning: Evidence of the heyday of classic fortified structures in modern times; outstanding examples of military architecture in the 17th century and the architectural implementation of a systematic military strategy; Models for the development of fortress construction worldwide up to the 19th century.

Old town of Bordeaux (World Heritage)

According to oxfordastronomy, the old town of Bordeaux nestles against the banks of the Garonne, which forms an arch like a crescent moon in the urban area. In the course of the Enlightenment, the important trading town was given a new, classical face with magnificent buildings and ensembles in the 18th century.

Old town of Bordeaux: facts

Official title: Historic center of Bordeaux (“Port of the Moon”)
Cultural monument: Port city with the historic old town (“Port de la Lune”) surrounded by the Garonne in a crescent moon shape; architecturally closed, characteristic city center with a large number of medieval buildings and buildings of the French Enlightenment; a total of 347 protected structures; Middle Ages: including churches Saint-André (mid-12th-15th century, with figure portal from the 13th century, free-standing late Gothic bell tower, “Tour Pey-Berland”, 1440-1466), Saint-Seurin (12th-14th centuries) 19th century; facade 19th century), Saint-Michel (late Gothic, 14th-16th century) with free-standing bell tower (1470-1492) and Sainte-Croix (12th / 13th century); Porte de Cailhau (1493-1495) and Porte de la Grosse-Cloche with a 41 meter high tower (12th-15th centuries). Enlightenment: spacious, spacious streets and squares (Place de la Bourse, Place Gambetta, Place d’Acquitaine,
Continent: Europe
Country: France
Location: Bordeaux, South West France
Appointment: 2007
Meaning: Exceptionally closed architecture with extensive architectural evidence of the Middle Ages and the Enlightenment; unique architectural embodiment of a city as a place of enlightenment, humanism and cultural exchange since the 12th century; outstanding example of a homogeneous urban historical transformation

Old town of Bordeaux: history

3rd century Originally a Celtic settlement; important port and transshipment point; Trade metropolis during the Roman Empire
418 The Visigoths annexed Bordeaux
507 Conquest by the Franks
from 1154 to 1450 Bordeaux under the rule of the English kings, time of important wine exports to England
1451 and 1453 Recapture by France (Battle of Castillon)
18th century Colonial trade
19th century Decline in colonial trade due to the loss of the French colonies

Le Havre (World Heritage)

The city in Normandy was almost completely destroyed in World War II and rebuilt between 1945 and 1964 under the architect Auguste Perret. The concrete architecture of the inner city is characteristic. The few remaining buildings such as the 16th century cathedral were incorporated into the new concept.

Le Havre: facts

Official title: Le Havre
Cultural monument: Largest city in Normandy with the second largest port in France; Largely destroyed in the Second World War and rebuilt from 1945 to 1964 according to the plans of the architects Auguste Perret in the form language of neoclassicism (including the Hôtel de Ville and the Saint-Joseph church with a 106 m high octagonal tower), Notre-Dame Cathedral has been preserved (1574-1630) and Saint-François (16th / 17th century); rebuilt former courthouse (18th century) with natural history museum; Gare Maritime (1935) by Eugène Freyssine
Continent: Europe
Country: France
Location: Le Havre, north-western France, Haute-Normandie region
Appointment: 2005
Meaning: Unique cityscape, emerged from the combination of historical city architecture with modern city planning and new building techniques

Le Havre: history

1517 Establishment of Le Havre as a naval port
1525 Severe storm surge with 600 fatalities
1536 Construction of the cathedral
1749 Visit from Madame de Pompadour
1789 Construction of the theater
1847 Railway connection
1940 Entry of German troops into the city
5./6.9.1944 Heavy bombing attack with 5,000 dead and 12,500 buildings destroyed
1945-64 Reconstruction according to Auguste Perret’s plans

Le Havre (World Heritage)