State of south-western Asia and, to a small extent, of south-eastern Europe. The country, which had a population of 67,803,927 at the 2000 census, is the most populous in the Mediterranean area. The average density (just under 90 residents / km 2 in 2006) hides strong distribution inequalities, ranging from 300-400 residents / km 2 in eastern Thrace, some pontic areas and Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas, to 50 – 60 residents / km 2 of the central and eastern plateau. The demographic forecasts, according to which the Turkish population was destined to reach the95 million residents in 2030, they decreased, given the lowering of the annual growth rate: the Turkey, in fact, seems to have started at the end of the demographic transition process and the fertility rate, progressively reduced over the years (from 6 ‰ of the Fifties of the 20th century to 3.5% of the Eighties up to 1.9% of 2006), has reached a value that allows only the generational change. The 29 % of the Turkish population is under 15 years, and a similar percentage is given by the age group between 15 and 29 years of age (2005): this structure is reflected in its turn in the labor market, where the working-age population represents over 20 million people, with an excess of labor supply and consequent emigration. Cities concentrate most of the residents and the urban population is in progressive growth (from 59 % in 2000 to 67 % in 2004). The ethnic composition is quite homogeneous, with a clear prevalence of Turks (85.7 %) and Kurds (11 %). For Turkey 2000, please check neovideogames.com.
After the economic crisis experienced in 2001, the results improved and the GDP growth rate stabilized at around 7-8 % per year, while inflation fell to around 8 %, according to the objective set by the International Monetary Fund. The 1st January 2005, Turkey acquired a new currency (the new Turkish lira), the introduction of which confirmed the successes achieved by the economic policy promoted by the government. However, the Turkish economy remains fragile, as it is held back by both structural factors and a geopolitical situation considered at risk. At the same time, Turkey fails to attract foreign capital and direct foreign investments appear significantly lower than the levels reached by Central European countries, new members of the European Union (EU). Turkey remains a poor country, with a low average per capita income , high unemployment (over 10 % recorded in 2005), heavy foreign debt (in 2003 debt service represented the 38.5 % of revenue from exports of goods and services), while the shadow economy (estimated at around 50 % of GDP), high interest rates, bureaucracy, persistence of corruption represent an obstacle to development. In addition, significant inequalities remain within the country, and the average income in the İstanbul region is five times that of Eastern Anatolia. While the capital shows a growing economic vitality with a multiplication of projects, on the other hand the suburbs of the big cities, the rural areas of eastern Turkey and, in particular, the Kurdish regions remain characterized by poverty, unemployment and heated political tensions.
Despite the results achieved in terms of structural reforms, economic development and respect for human rights, some obstacles remain to the entry of Turkey in the EU (see below: History). The market economy is functioning, but there is still a need for stabilization and further reforms, while administrative and judicial structures must become more solid and the customs union must be facilitated. Numerous international economic organizations have contributed to the implementation of the country’s main structural and macroeconomic reforms. In February 2002a three-year agreement was concluded with the International Monetary Fund relating to an economic recovery plan, focused on reducing public debt and aimed at strengthening the private sector and the banking system. In 2003 (but with reference to the 2004-2006 three-year period), this initiative was accompanied by the Country Assistance Strategy of the World Bank, intended to prevent new economic crises and to assist in meeting the European convergence criteria. The reforms mainly concerned the regulations relating to foreign investments and the creation of new businesses, as well as the labor market and public finance; privatizations were carried out above all with reference to the energy and telecommunications market, with the privatization of 55 % of Turk Telecom.