Administrative and cultural institutions
In addition to the highest state authorities and foreign embassies, many international organizations have their headquarters here (UNESCO, OECD, etc.); also Catholic Archbishop, Archbishop of the Russian Orthodox Churches in Europe, Union of Protestant Churches in France, Central Council of Jews for France and Algeria. Paris has the oldest university in the country (Sorbonne); since the reorganization of 1968/70 there have been 13 universities in the Paris area; three of them are not in the urban area of Paris (University VIII in Vincennes, University X in Nanterre and University XII in Créteil); there are also three other universities in the “Villes nouvelles”. Most of the Grandes Écoles are in Paris, as are the Conservatoire National d’Art Dramatique, the École du Louvre and numerous research institutes, including the Center Allemand d’histoire de l’Art (German Forum for Art History). Most famous and oldest academy of the Institut de France is the Académie française; The Collège de France, CEA (Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique), IGN (Institut Géographique National), INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques) and CNRS (Center National de la Recherche Scientifique) are also of great importance. A CEA nuclear research center is located in Saclay in the Paris area.
The city has a unique wealth of libraries (over 300; the most important is the Bibliothèque Nationale de France) and documentation centers. The cultural significance is also reflected in the numerous theaters (over 60, including the Comédie-Française), operas (Opéra-Garnier, Opéra-Bastille, Opéra-Comique) and museums, including Louvre, Musée National du Moyen Age (Hôtel de Cluny; Art of the Middle Ages), European Photo Museum “Maison Européenne de la Photographie” (MEP), Musée Carnavalet (city history), Army Museum; in the Palais de Chaillot the Musée National des Monuments Français (sculptures, frescoes, stained glass) and the Musée de l’Homme (natural and ethnological museum). 19th century art, modern and contemporary art are presented at the Center National d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou, in the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, in the Musée d’Orsay, in the Orangerie des Tuileries and the Jeu de Paume. Sculptures, handicrafts from different eras and collections of paintings can be found in the museums Cognacq-Jay, Marmottan, Nissim de Camondo and Musée des Arts Décoratifs. The museums Guimet, Cernuschi (especially Chinese art) and d’Ennery are dedicated to the art of Asia. The Musée du quai Branly (opened in 2006), which unites the art of Africa, America, Asia and Oceania under one roof, was built in the immediate vicinity of the Eiffel Tower. One of the things that deal with the art and life of individual artists is the museums H. de Balzac, C. Brancusi, A. Rodin, A. Bourdelle, E. Delacroix, V. Hugo, A. Maillol, G. Moreau, P. Picasso, O. Zadkine.
Paris is the country’s economic metropolis. Paris and the Île-de-France region generate over a quarter of the country’s gross domestic product. In the European banking and stock exchange (Paris Stock Exchange) Paris has a leading position; Within a radius of 500 m from the Opéra, more than a third of all French banks have their headquarters. The Paris area is also a leader in industry: over half of French production (especially aircraft, motor vehicles and electronics) is produced here. The “Articles de Paris” (perfumery, cosmetics, bijouterie, haute couture, etc.) have world renown. Paris is the fashion center and hub of the French film industry.
In addition to large power stations, the energy supply is provided by crude oil, natural gas, industrial gas and finished product lines from Groningen, Lacq, Lorraine and Le Havre. Because of its cultural heritage (buildings, theaters and museums), its outstanding position in economic life and its entertainment options, Paris is the tourist center of France (2017: 33.8 million visitors). The congress center includes the Center International de Paris (Palais des Congrès) is available. In 1992 the amusement park “Disneyland” was opened in Marne-la-Vallée near Paris.
Paris Stock Exchange
According to thereligionfaqs, Paris stock exchange, French Bourse de Paris [ burs də pa ri],central stock exchange in France, founded in 1724 by royal decree. After extensive reforms in 1988 and 1991, the Paris stock exchange is a pure computer exchange, which also includes the former six regional and floor exchanges (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nancy, Nantes). The stockbrokers (agents de change) proposed by the board of directors and appointed by the minister of economics and finance have the exclusive right to trade on the stock exchange. You may only do business for customers, not for your own account. The stock market is divided into official stock exchange trading (Marché officiel), the regulated market and the over-the-counter market (Marché hors-côte). Other exchanges in Paris are the French futures exchange MATIF (Abbreviation for Marché à Terme International de France; founded 1986), on which securities futures, options as well as agricultural and commodity futures are traded, as well as the French options exchange MONEP (abbreviation for Marché des Options Négociables de Paris; founded 1987; mainly American stock options are listed and European options).