There has been a slight trend reversal in the economically still underdeveloped northeast, which had to accept heavy emigration losses in the previous years, but now has a relatively balanced migration balance thanks to the immigration gains from Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba and Sergipe. A noticeable change in the south is that the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo registered emigration losses again for the first time after years of growth. The gains in the northwestern Amazon region essentially follow a long-term trend. The only new development here is that Acre is now also benefiting from immigration.

Population movements are triggered by a variety of factors, with differences in living conditions, recorded here by a spatially differentiated representation of the HDI, and economic contrasts play a decisive role. Brazil is still characterized by strong social and regional differences. The south-east has – not least thanks to the strong immigration from Europe – a modern, high-performance infrastructure in the areas of transport, banking and trade, the living conditions here are at least average according to the HDI index, in large areas even good. The negative balance of migration in the metropolises of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo can at least partially be explained by the difficult living conditions for poor immigrants. Above all with the successful fight against poverty by the government and the increasingly better economic development outside the Southeast, so that important motives for emigration are no longer applicable.

The north is economically significantly behind the south-east, the living conditions here are on average much worse, but it has recently shown the highest growth rates. The background to such – seemingly contradictory – structures and migration movements is the development of the Amazon, especially agricultural colonization. For more information about the continent of North America, please check