Djibouti Country

Djibouti is located in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Eritrea to the north, Ethiopia to the west and south, and Somalia to the southeast. It also shares maritime borders with Yemen across the Bab-el-Mandeb strait. Its geographic coordinates are approximately 11°30’N latitude and 43°00’E longitude.

Geography

Climate:

Djibouti experiences a hot desert climate, with high temperatures and minimal rainfall throughout the year. The average annual temperature ranges from 25°C to 35°C (77°F to 95°F), with little variation between seasons. The country’s coastal areas are slightly cooler due to sea breezes, while inland regions can be extremely arid.

Fauna:

Djibouti’s rugged terrain and harsh climate support a variety of unique wildlife species adapted to desert conditions. These include Arabian and Beira antelopes, Soemmerring’s gazelles, and a diverse array of bird species such as flamingos, pelicans, and ostriches.

Longest Rivers:

Djibouti is primarily arid, with no permanent rivers flowing within its borders. However, seasonal wadis (dry riverbeds) may experience flash floods during rare rainstorms, providing temporary water sources for wildlife and nomadic communities.

Highest Mountains:

Mount Mousa Ali, located near the border with Ethiopia, is Djibouti’s highest peak, reaching an elevation of approximately 2,028 meters (6,654 feet) above sea level. The mountain is part of the Goda Massif range, characterized by rugged volcanic terrain and deep valleys.

History

Prehistory:

Djibouti has a rich prehistoric heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back over 3,000 years. Ancient rock art, stone tools, and burial sites scattered across the country attest to the presence of early hunter-gatherer societies, who thrived in the region’s diverse ecosystems.

Ancient Civilizations:

The territory of present-day Djibouti was inhabited by various ancient civilizations, including the Kingdom of Punt, which flourished along the Red Sea coast around 2500 BCE. Later, the region became a vital trade hub for the ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Greeks, who sought valuable commodities such as myrrh, frankincense, and exotic spices.

Colonial Era:

Djibouti’s strategic location at the crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe attracted the interest of European colonial powers in the 19th century. The French established a presence in the region in the late 19th century, gradually extending their control over the territory and establishing Djibouti as a colony known as French Somaliland.

Independence and Modern Era:

Djibouti gained independence from France on June 27, 1977, becoming the Republic of Djibouti with Hassan Gouled Aptidon as its first president. Since independence, Djibouti has navigated various political and economic challenges, including internal conflicts, regional instability, and the pursuit of economic development and social progress.

Demographics

Djibouti has a diverse population of approximately 1 million people, composed of various ethnic groups, including the Somali, Afar, and Arab communities. The country is predominantly Muslim, with Islam serving as the primary religion and Arabic and French as the official languages. Djibouti’s population is relatively young, with a significant portion residing in urban centers such as the capital city, Djibouti City.

Administrative Divisions

Djibouti is divided into six administrative regions, each further subdivided into districts. The regions, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Ali Sabieh Region – Population: 207,460
  2. Arta Region – Population: 47,536
  3. Dikhil Region – Population: 112,860
  4. Djibouti Region (Capital) – Population: 600,000
  5. Obock Region – Population: 40,607
  6. Tadjourah Region – Population: 89,743

10 Largest Cities by Population

Djibouti’s largest cities by population include:

  1. Djibouti City – Population: 600,000
  2. Ali Sabieh – Population: 47,500
  3. Tadjourah – Population: 22,193
  4. Obock – Population: 17,776
  5. Dikhil – Population: 14,800
  6. Arta – Population: 11,500
  7. Holhol – Population: 10,800
  8. Dorra – Population: 9,800
  9. Guelile – Population: 8,900
  10. Loyada – Population: 8,700

Education Systems

Djibouti’s education system is undergoing development, with efforts to expand access to quality education for all citizens. Primary and secondary education is free and compulsory, although challenges such as limited infrastructure and resources persist. Djibouti is home to several universities and institutions of higher learning, including the University of Djibouti, which offers a range of academic programs and research opportunities.

Transportation

Airports:

Djibouti is served by several airports, with Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport being the primary gateway to the country. Other airports include Aden Adde International Airport in the city of Djibouti and airports in the regional capitals of Ali Sabieh, Tadjourah, and Obock.

Railways:

Djibouti is home to the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway, a major transportation artery connecting the capital city of Djibouti with the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa. The railway spans approximately 756 kilometers (470 miles) and serves as a vital link for trade and commerce between the two countries.

Highways:

Djibouti has a network of highways and roads connecting its major urban centers and ports. The country’s road infrastructure is continually being upgraded to facilitate transportation and economic growth, with major highways such as the Route Nationale 1 linking Djibouti City with other regions.

Ports:

Djibouti is renowned for its strategic ports, including the Port of Djibouti, one of the busiest maritime hubs in East Africa. Other major ports include the Port of Doraleh, Port of Tadjourah, Port of Obock, and Port of Goubet, which play a crucial role in facilitating international trade and commerce.

Country Facts

  • Population: 1 million
  • Capital: Djibouti City
  • Language: Arabic, French
  • Religion: Islam
  • Race: Somali, Afar, Arab
  • Currency: Djiboutian Franc (DJF)
  • ISO Country Codes: DJ
  • International Calling Code: +253
  • Top-Level Domain: .dj